You are not connected to the internet and now in offline mode. Only pages or articles you visited while connected will be available.

Get notified when a new update is published!

Morbidity and Mortality (M&M) Toolkit

Published: January 1, 2023

Categories: Global Health, Patient safety



Patient safety is a serious global public health concern. Studies have suggested that there is a 1 in 300 chance of a patient being harmed during health care. Once patients are harmed, Morbidity and Mortality (M & M) meetings are used to analyse cases with adverse outcomes and identify the underlying causes to bring about process changes, improve practices and patient safety. In many hospitals in lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) this peer review mechanism does not yet exist, either due to unfamiliarity with the process or lack of human resources. In many of the smaller hospitals, only a single anaesthesia provider may cater to the surgical workload. In response, the World Federation of The Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WFSA) Safety and Quality of Practice Committee initiated the Mortality and Morbidity Toolkit project to develop a practical resource that includes the essential elements for anaesthesiologists to do analyse patient morbidity and mortality events and to improve their patient care. A toolkit is intended to guide frontline staff using a collection of authoritative and adaptable resources that can be implemented using practical approaches for addressing key issues. Toolkits provide a collection of open-source techniques and open access design, technical, and implementation resources that can help you plan and effectively implement M & M meetings in your hospital. The toolkit was developed after conducting an extensive needs-analysis survey in five LMICs and following a group consensus of the committee members. We have also included background reading materials to guide the readers on essential topics related to advancing patient safety and risk management. Each chapter provides a suggested reading list for deep reflection and further self-learning to support optimal care delivery.