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Education for anaesthesia providers worldwide

Volume 33

January 2019

Editor(s)-in-Chief: Alan Jay Schwartz

Associate Editor(s): Christina Lundgren and Victoria Howell

ISSN 1253-4882

The Journal of the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists



Alan Jay Schwartz (USA)

Associate Editors

Christina Lundgren (SA)
Victoria Howell (UK)
Emeritus Editor-in-chief
Bruce McCormick (UK)

Editorial Board of Update in Anaesthesia

Douglas Bacon (USA)
Gustavo Elena (Argentina)
Martin Chobli (Benin)
Dr Aboudoul-Fataou Ouro-Bang’na Maman (Togo)
Dr David Pescod (Australia)
Dr Jeanette Thirlwell (Australia)
Dr Isabeau Walker (UK)
SS Harsoor (India)
Kazuyoshi Hirota (Japan
)Zhanggang Xue (China)
Jing Zhao (China)

Typeset by Prepress Projects Ltd, Perth, UK

Printed by COS Printers Pte Ltd, Singapore©

World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists 2019. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists, Dean Bradley House, 52 Horseferry Rd, London SW1P 2AF, UK.


The WFSA takes all reasonable care to ensure that the information contained in Update in Anaesthesia is accurate. We cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions and take no responsibility for the consequences of error or for any loss or damage which may arise from reliance on information contained